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Physics formula MCAT

MCAT EXAM CRACKERS STUDY STACK

MCAT EXAM CRACKERS STUDY STACK

MDCAT (MCAT) University of Health Science Lahore Past Paper 2008-2017 with Answer Key in PDF

Download MDCAT (MCAT) University of Health Science Lahore Past Paper 2008-2017 with Answer Key in PDF

Physics formula MCAT

Question Answer
Displacement d = ∆s (final position) – (inital position)
average velocity v = v = ∆x/∆t = d/∆t
average acceleeration a = a = ∆v/∆t
the Big Four uniformly accerlerated motion ∆x = Vоt + 1/2at^2; ∆v =at; v^2 = v^2+2a∆x; v = v+v (final)+ (inital)/2;
Newton’s First Law F = An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon
Newton’s Second Law F = ma
Newton’s Third Law To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction
Weight w = w = mg
Gravitational force F = F = G Mm/r^2
Kinetic friction F = µ(k)F (normal force)
Static friction F = µ(s)F (normal force)
Force due to gravity acting parallel to inclined plane F = F = mg sinθ
force due to gravity acting perpendicular to inclined plane F = F = mg cosθ
Force from Tension F (T) = F (tension) = F (net) + mg
Center of mass = m1x1+m2x2+m3x3…/m1+m2+m3…
Centripital acceleration a = F = v^2/r
Centripital ForceF = F = ma = mv^2/r
Torque τ = τ = rFsinθ
Work (3)W = W = Fd= Pt= qV
Kinetic Energy KE = KE = 1/2 mv^2
Work-Energy Theorem W (total)= ∆KE
Gravetational Potential Energy PE or U = PE = mgh
Total Mechanical Energy E = E = KE + PE
Conservaton of Total Mechanical Energy KE(i)+PE(i) = KE(f)+PE(f)
Momentum p = p = mv
Impulse J J = ∆p= F∆t
Conservation of Total Momentum p(inital) = p(final)
Elastic Collision Total momentum and total KE is conserved i.e when after a collision two balls go in opposite directions
Inelastic Collision Total momentum is conserved however, KE is NOT conserved i.e balls move together
Density ρ = ρ = m/V
Specific gragity sp.gr = sp.gr = ρ/ρH2O
Pressure P = P = F/A
Area for circle A = A = πr^2
Hydrostatic Gague Pressure P (gauge) = = ρ(fluid)gd
Total Hydrostatic Pressue P = P = ρ (on surface) +P(gauge)
Archmides’ Principle F (Buoy) = F (Buoy) = ρ(fluid)gV
Laminar smooth floe
Pascal’s Law F1/A1 = F2/A2
flow rate f = f = Av
Bernoulli’s equation P1 +1/2ρv^2 +ρgh = P2 +1/2ρv^2 + ρgh
Stress = F/A
Elementary Charge e = e = 1.6 x10^-19 C = 1eV
Coulomb’s Law F(electric) = F = K qq/r^2
electric Field due to point charge Q = Q = k Q/r^2
The direction of electric field is… away from a positive source charge and toward a negative charge
Electric Force F(electric) = F = qE
Current I = I = Q/t
Resistance R = R = ρ(resistivity) L/AR = V/I
Ohm’s Law V = IR (where R is constant)
Resistors in series R = R1+R2+R3+R4….
Resistors in parallel R = R1R2/R1+R2 or 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2…
Power of circuit P = P = IV; P = I^2R; P = V^2/R
Roor-mean-squar V rms = V rms = V max/√2
T or F; Do resistors in series share the same current? True…always
T or F; Do resistors in parallel share the same voltage drop? True…always
Does a small resistance give a smaller or bigger current? A smaller resistance gives a BIGGER current
T or F can capacitors with dielectrics hold more charge and PE? True
Charge on a capacitor Q = Q = CV
capacitance C = C = ε A/D
electric field in parallel plate V = V = Ed
Stored potential energy in capacitors PE = PE = 1/2QVPE = 1/2CV^2
Capacitors in serires C = C = C1C2/C1+C2 or 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2…
Capacitors in parallel C = C = C1+ C2+ C3…
Magnetic Force F(B) = F(B) = qvB (B = magnetic field)
Right Hand Rule thumb = direction of velocity of chargefingers = B = magentic fieldpalm of hand = magnetic force
Hooke’s Law for springs F= -kx
Elastic Potential Energy for spring PE = 1/2 kx^2
Frequency spring block f = f = ω/2π
period for mass spring T = T = 2π/ √m/k
fundamental equation for waves v = v = γf
force constant for simple pendulem k = k = mg/L
period for simple pendulem T = T = 2π√L/g
angular frequency for sinmple pendulem ω = √g/L
sin 0 = 0
sin 30 = 1/2 or .5
sin 45 = √2/2 or .70
sin 60 = √3/2 or .87
sin 90 = 1
sin 180 = -1
cos0 = 1
cos 30 = √3/2 or .87
cos 45 = √2/2 or .70
cos 60 = 1/2 or .5
cos 90 = 0
cos 180 = -1
potential engergy for simple pendulem PE = PE = mgh
What is the wavelength of a wave in a tube with both ends open? λ= λ = 2L/n
What is the wavelength of a wave in a tube with one end closed? λ= λ= 4L/n
Beat frequency: f(beat) f(beat) = f(1) – f(2)
Intensity I = I = power/area
Doppler Effect f(D) = f(O) = f(s) v +- v(o)/ v +- v(s)
v(s) is positive if… source is moving away from observer
v(s) is negative if… source is moving toward observer
v(o) is positve if… object is moving toward source
v(o) is negative if… object is moving away from source
Photon of Energy E = E = hf = hc/λ
Index of refraction n = n = c/v
Snell’s Law of Refraction n1sinθ = n2sinθ
mirror lens equation 1/f = 1/o + 1/i = 1/f
focal length f = f = 1/2r
magnification m = m = -i/o
If speaking about optics and light, converging means… converging means concave mirror and convex lens
If speaking about optics and light, diverging means… diverging means convex mirror and concave lens
Positive i = real image (infront of mirror); that is inverted
Negative i = virtual image (behind mirror); that is upright
Lens power P = P = 1/f
What is the formula for wavelength of a sting with both side closed λ = λ = 2L

Biology Terms – MCAT

Biology Terms – MCAT

Question Answer
Centromere central region of a chromosome (or chromatid)
Centrioles cylindrical organelles within the centrosome
Centrosome area which serves as a base for spindle formation
Chromatin uncoiled DNA which appears granular
Asters structure of spindle fibers radiating from centrosome
Kinetochores connection point of spindle fiber to centromere on chromosome
Binary fission simple form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes
Budding replication of nucleus with unequal cytokenesis; in yeast and hydra
Regeneration regrowth of a lost or injured body part; replacement by mitosis
Parthenogenesis development of unfertilized egg into an adult organism
Gametocytes specialized cells that undergo meiosis
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that code for the same traits; 1 maternal and 1 paternal
Synapsis process of chromosome pair overlapping
Tetrad synaptic pair of homologous chromosomes; four chromatids
Crossing over homologous chromosomes exchange equivalent pieces of DNA
Chiasmata points where crossing over occurs
Genetic recombination result of crossing over; exchange of genetic data
Disjunction separation of homologous chromosomes by chance to daughter cells
Alleles a pool of unique genes coding for alternative forms of a given trait
Cleavage embryonic development through a series of rapid mitotic divisions
Determinate cleavage results in a cell whose future pathways are determined early
Indeterminate cleavage results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism
Morula earliest solid ball of embryonic cells in the uterus
Blastula hollow sphere of cells
Blastulation process of the morula developing a fluid-filled cavity called, a blastocoel
Blastocoel fluid-filled cavity in the developing morula
Blastocyst the mammalian blastula
Trophoblast cell layer that surrounds the blastocoel and and gives rise to the chorion
Endometrium mucosal lining of the uterus; prepared by progesterone; location of implantation
Gastrula three-layered structure: ectoderm, endoderm, and archenteron
Archenteron newly formed cavity of the two-layered gastrula; develops into the gut
Blastopore opening of the archenteron
Deuterostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the anus
Protostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the mouth
Induction the differentiation of a group of cells by another group (the organizers)
Inducers chemical substances passed by organizers during induction
Notochord rod of mesodermal cells; induces the formation of the neural groove/tube
Fetus the growing embryo (beyond 8 weeks gestation)
Placenta
Umbilical chord connection between fetus and placenta; develops from the allantois and yolk sac
Amnion thin, tough membrane containing amniotic fluid which acts as a shock absorber
Chorion a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion and extends chorionic villi
Fetal Hemoglobin Hb-F; greater affiliation for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin
Umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Ductus venosus a shunt that diverts the fetal blood to bypass the liver
Foramen ovale a shunt that delivers blood from the RA to the LA bypassing the pulmonary circuit
Ductus arteriosus a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta
Centromere central region of a chromosome (or chromatid)
Centrioles cylindrical organelles within the centrosome
Centrosome area which serves as a base for spindle formation
Chromatin uncoiled DNA which appears granular
Asters structure of spindle fibers radiating from centrosome
Kinetochores connection point of spindle fiber to centromere on chromosome
Binary fission simple form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes
Budding replication of nucleus with unequal cytokenesis; in yeast and hydra
Regeneration regrowth of a lost or injured body part; replacement by mitosis
Parthenogenesis development of unfertilized egg into an adult organism
Gametocytes specialized cells that undergo meiosis
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that code for the same traits; 1 maternal and 1 paternal
Synapsis process of chromosome pair overlapping
Tetrad synaptic pair of homologous chromosomes; four chromatids
Crossing over homologous chromosomes exchange equivalent pieces of DNA
Chiasmata points where crossing over occurs
Genetic recombination result of crossing over; exchange of genetic data
Disjunction separation of homologous chromosomes by chance to daughter cells
Alleles a pool of unique genes coding for alternative forms of a given trait
Cleavage embryonic development through a series of rapid mitotic divisions
Determinate cleavage results in a cell whose future pathways are determined early
Indeterminate cleavage results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism
Morula earliest solid ball of embryonic cells in the uterus
Blastula hollow sphere of cells
Blastulation process of the morula developing a fluid-filled cavity called, a blastocoel
Blastocoel fluid-filled cavity in the developing morula
Blastocyst the mammalian blastula
Trophoblast cell layer that surrounds the blastocoel and and gives rise to the chorion
Endometrium mucosal lining of the uterus; prepared by progesterone; location of implantation
Gastrula three-layered structure: ectoderm, endoderm, and archenteron
Archenteron newly formed cavity of the two-layered gastrula; develops into the gut
Blastopore opening of the archenteron
Deuterostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the anus
Protostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the mouth
Induction the differentiation of a group of cells by another group (the organizers)
Inducers chemical substances passed by organizers during induction
Notochord rod of mesodermal cells; induces the formation of the neural groove/tube
Fetus the growing embryo (beyond 8 weeks gestation)
Placenta
Umbilical chord connection between fetus and placenta; develops from the allantois and yolk sac
Amnion thin, tough membrane containing amniotic fluid which acts as a shock absorber
Chorion a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion and extends chorionic villi
Fetal Hemoglobin Hb-F; greater affiliation for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin
Umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Ductus venosus a shunt that diverts the fetal blood to bypass the liver
Foramen ovale a shunt that delivers blood from the RA to the LA bypassing the pulmonary circuit
Ductus arteriosus a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta

EK Chem 1

EK Chem 1

atoms, molecules, and quantum mechanics

Question Answer
atoms tiny particles that make up mass, composed of nucleus surrounded by 1 or more electrons; size is mostly from the space between the electrons and nucleus
nucleus of atom contains protons and neutrons (collectively nucleons) which are held together by strain nuclear force
proton positive charge, same mass as neutron
neutron neutral charge, same mass as proton
electron negative charge, mass much smaller than that of proton or neutron (1/1800)
element building blocks of all compounds and cannot be decomposed into simpler smaller substances by any chemical means
mass number denoted as A (top left corner of the elemental symbol), proton + neutrons
atomic number denoted as Z (bottom left corner of the elemental symbol), number of protons
isotope two or more atoms of the same element that contain different number of neutrons
amu atomic mass unit, aka dalton, defined by carbon-12 (one atom of carbon 12 has an atomic weight of 12 amu)
atomic weight aka molar mass, given in amu’s
mole aka Avogadro’s number, 6.022 x 10^23, the number of carbon atoms in 12 grams of carbon 12–> = grams/atomic or molecular weight
periodic table lists elements from left to right in order of their atomic numbers, divides elements into nonmetals on right side, metals on the left side, and metalloids along the diagonal separating the nonmetals and metals
period of the periodic table horizontal rows of periodic table
groups of periodic table aka families, vertical rows of periodic table
metals large atoms, tend to lose e’s to form +ions or form + oxidation state, described as a sea of e’s which move easily making them ductile (easily stretched), malleable (easily hammered into thin strips), thermal and electrical conductivity, and have a luster
nonmetals diverse appearances and chemical behaviors, lower melting points than metals, form negative ions
metalloids some characteristics that resemble metals and some that resemble non metals
transition metals section B groups
hydrogen unique, does not fall conform to any family, nonmetal, under most conditions is a colorless, odorless, diatomic gas
alkali metals (Group 1A) soft metallic solids with low densities and low melting points, form 1+ cations easily, highly reactive, only exist in compounds in nature
alkaline earth metals (Group 2A) harder, more dense, and melt at higher mp’s than alkalis, form 2+ cations easily, less reactive than alkalis
4A elements can form 4 covalent bonds with nonmetals but only carbon can form 2 additional bonds with Lewis bases, only carbon forms strong pi bonds
5A elements can form 3 covalent bonds, all except nitrogen can use d orbitals to make 5 covalent bonds, only N and P can make pi bonds
6A elements aka chalcogens, most important of the group are O and S
7A elements aka halogens, highly reactive, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
noble gas nonreactive, aka inert gases, normally found in nature as isolated atoms, gases at room temperature
diatomic molecules hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and halogens
small atoms.. less room to stabilize charge by spreading it out so it will bind strongly to water (greater heats of hydration), no d orbitals so no more than 4 bonds but make strong pi bonds due to overlap of p orbitals
large atoms.. unable to make strong pi bonds bc not enough overlap but can have d orbitals allowing for more than 4 bonds
cation positive ion, significantly smaller than their neutral atom counterparts
anion negative ion, larger than their neutral atom counterparts
transition metals as ions will lose e’s from their s subshell before their d subshell (bc atoms typically lose e’s from the highest energy shell first)
effective nuclear charge (Zeff) amount of charge felt by the second e’, it won’t feel the entire nuclear charge b/c the first e’ shields it, = the nuclear charge (Z) minus the average # of e’s between nucleus and e’ in question
Zeff trend increases across (L–>R) and down the periodic table; the shielding increases with the addition of another subshell but decreases when adding to the same subshell
periodic trends predictions about elements based on their position in the periodic table, includes trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electronegativity, and electron affinity
atomic radius increases going down the table and from right to left of the table, when Zeff decreases each e’ is pulled in stronger creating smaller atomic radius
ionization energy energy necessary to detach an electron from a nucleus, generally increases from left to right and from bottom to top
first ionization energy energy necessary to detach an e’ from a neutral atom
second ionization energy energy for removal of second e’ from the same atom
electronegativitiy tendency of an atom to attract an e’ in bond that shares with another atom, tends to increase from L to R and up the periodic table
electron affinity willingness of an atom to accept an additional e’, energy released when an e’ is added to a gaseous atom, increases from L to R and up the table
metallic character tends to increase from R to L and down the table
covalent bond two e’s shared by two nuclei where the repulsive and attractive forces of the + and – charged particles are balanced to create this bond
bond length defined as the point where their energy level is lowest
bond dissociation energy energy necessary to achieve a complete separation
compound substance made of two or more elements in a definite proportions
empirical formula ratio of whole numbers that represent the relative number of 1 element to another
molecules distinct and separate units repeated formed from groups of atoms
molecular formula exact number of elemental atoms in each molecule
how to find % composition by mass (1) multiply an atom’s atomic weight by the # of atoms it contributes to the empirical formula (2) divide the result by the weight of all the atoms in the empirical formula (3)multiple fraction by 100
how to find empirical formula (1) assume you have 100 g sample and percentage = # grams (2) divide grams by atomic weight to get moles (3) divide by greatest common factor to give empirical formula
ionic compounds named after cation and anion (cation name goes in front of anion name)
monatomic ions and simply polyatomic anions suffix -ide
polyatomic anions with oxygens -ite for -ate depending on number of oxygens with hypo- and per- suffixes for the fewest and most oxygens respectively
acids names based on their anions. if anion ends in ‘die then acid name starts with hydro and end with -ic
binary molecular compounds compounds with 2 elements, name begins with the name of the element that is furthest to the left and lowest in the periodic table, and the 2nd element is given suffix -ide (eg
physical rxn when a compound undergoes a rxn and maintains its molecular structure (melting, evaporation, dissolution, and rotation of polarized light)
chemical rxn when a compound undergoes a rxn and changes its molecular structure to form a new compound (ex
theoretical yield amount of product produced when a rxn runs to completion
limiting reagent reactant that would be completely used up if the reaction were run to completion
percent yield actual yield / theoretical yield * 100
combination rxn type A + B –> C
decomposition rxn type C–> A + B
single displacement rxn A + BC –> B + AC
double displacement rxn AB + CD –> AD + CB

aka metathesis reaction

crystal solid sharp melting point and characteristic shape, well ordered structure with repeating units, can be ionic, network covalent, metallic, or molecular
amorphous solid no characteristic shape, melts over temperature range
principal quantum number n, designates the shell level
azimuthal quantum number l, designates the subshell (s, p, d, and f), = n-1, each has a peculiar shape
magnetic quantum number m, designates the precise orbital of a subshell, ranges from -l to +l
electron spin quantum number ms, either -1/2 or +1/2
Pauli exclusion principle no two e’s in the same atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers
number of total orbitals w/in a shell = n^2
Heisenberg uncertainty principle the more than is known about the momentum of a particle, the less we can know about the position
Aufbau principle with each new proton added to create a new element, a new e’ is added as well
electron configuration a way to show the shells and subshells from lowest to highest energy level with a subscript to show the # of e’s in each subshell
electron configuration relative energy table 1s
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f
1s-2s-2p-3s-3p-4s-3d-4p-5s -etc
Hund’s rule e’s will not fill any orbital in the same subshell until all orbitals in that subshel contain at least 1 e’ and the unpaired e’s will have parallel spin, e’s also prefer to have its own orbital when available
Planck’s quantum theory electromagnetic energy is quantizied– if we transfer energy from one point to another via electromagnetic wave, and we wish to increase that energy w/o changing f, then we can only change it in discrete increments (E = hf)
when an e’ fall from higher energy rung to lower energy rung… energy is released as a photon
if photon collides with an e’… it can only bump the e’ to another energy level rung and not between, if not enough energy, photon will be reflected away
photoelectric effect e’s from higher to lower release photons and e’s need to absorb photon to go from lower to higher energy

MCAT DNA Replication

MCAT DNA Replication

MCAT DNA

Question Answer
mRNA synthesizes protein
rRNA structural component of ribosomes
tRNA carries the an amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes for incorperation to a growing protein
proof-reading is called 3′-5′ exonuclease activity
toposiomerases fixes suppercoiling
RNA pol I makes rRNA
proteins are made… in the cytoplasm
RNA pol II makes mRNA
three differences bw DNA and RNA DNA uses deoxyribose instead of ribose; DNA uses thymine instead of uracil; DNA is double stranded while RNA is usually single
RNA pol III makes tRNA
transformation the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake, genomic incorporation, and expression of foreign genetic material inheritable genetic combo
conjunction the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. Donor male (+); recipient female (-). They have sex pili
transduction is the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus.

MCAT Anatomy CH 2

Anatomy and Physiology

Hint Answer
Chemical bonds sharing of electrons between atoms
Molecule two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds (sharing of electrons)
Chemical Reaction chemical bonds are formed or broken apart
Chemical bonds contain what? Potential Energy
Single Covalent Bond Sharing one pair of electrons
Double Covalent Bond Sharing two pairs of electrons
Rank Hydrogen, Covalent and Ionic by strength (strong, weak, very weak) Covalent – Strong. Ionic – Weak. Hydrogen – Very Weak.
Two types of Covalent Bonds & properties polar – unequal sharing of electrons & different types of atoms bonding (h20) & non polar – very equal sharing of electrons & atoms of the same type bonding (h2,02)
Covalent Bond Atoms share electrons
Ionic Bonds electrical attraction between ions. One atom, the electron donor looses one or more electrons and becomes a cation w + charge, while another atom, the electron acceptor gains those same electrons and becomes the electron acceptor, anion, – charge
Cations positively charged ions
Anions negatively charged ions
Hydrogen Bonds Weak electrical attractions. Takes place between the ends of molecules and H. (ex. holds water molec. together in solution).
Name 3 main Properties of Water 1. High heat capacity. 2. “Universal Solvent” 3. Molecules are defined by their ability to interact with h20 (hydrophobic & hydrophilic)
Hydrophobic molecules with non-polar bonds (afraid of h20)
Hydrophylic molecules with polar bonds, ions (love of h20)
Electrolytes Soluble inorganic olecules whose ions can conduct electrical current in solution. (anything ionic that can dissasociate in h20 (i.e. NACL -> CL-, NA+). Molecules that are electrolytes have ionic bonds that ionize (dissasociate) in h20
Salt an electrolyte whose cation is not hydrogen and whose anion is not hydroxide (isn’t acid or base)
Acids Release hydrogen ions into solution (contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions)
Bases Remove hydrogen ions from solution (has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions)
PH a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution
Log Exponent
Normal PH range of Blood 7.35-7.45
Acidosis Abnormally low blood P,H ( less than 7.35), more common than alkalosis
Alkalosis Abnormally High blood PH (greate than 7.45)
Atkins diet causes cidosis (ketoacidosis)
Inorganic Compound Generally do not include both C &H. Examples include H20, Co2, 02, salts, inorganic acids and bases
The human body is composed mostly of what kind of compound? (org or inorg?) Inorganic, mostly due to h20 making up the most of the body weight
Organic Compounds always have H& C (generally include C,H, sometimes O). may have N,P,S,Fe and other trace elements
What is the most simple organic compound? CH4, methane (Carbon always wants to form 4 bonds)
Four major classes of Organic Compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins & amino acids, nucleic acids &nucleotides
Polymer A large molecule consisting of a long chain of subunits (
Which organic compound is not a polymer? Lipids (why?)
What is the molecular composition of the human body? (h20,proteins,lipids,carbs) h20- 66%, protein-20%, lipids- 10%, carbohydrates-3%
Carbohydrates Prefix glyco, C,H,O in ratio of approximately 1:2:1 (ex. C6 H12 O6)
Three classes of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides Type of Carbohydrate, simple sugars. ex. glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides Tyep of Carb, 2 monosaccharides combined. i.e. sucrose(fromed from glucose & fructose), lactose (formed from glucose & galactose)
Poysaccharides type of Carb, chains of simple sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose
Lipids C,H,O present, but much less O than either, C to H ratio 1:2. example is lauric acid (C12, H24, O2), fats, oils, waxes.
types of Lipids Fatty Acids, Triglicerides
Fatty Acid Type of Lipid, has carboxyl group, long chain of carbon & hydrogen atoms attached. i.e. saturated, unsaturated, omega-3
Triglycerides Lipid -> Glycerides -> Triglicerides. AKA Neutral fats, formed by attachment of 3 fatty acids and glyerol molecule (via dehydration synthesis) i.e. fats, oils
Five types of Lipids Fatty Acids, Glycerides, Eicosanoids, Steroids, Phospholipids & Glycolipids
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes (type of Eicosanoid), short chain fatty acid in which five of the carbon atoms are joined in a ring, direct local cellular activities
Steroids (3ex) Type of Lipid, ex. cholesterol, estrogen, corticosteroids(derivative of cholesterol), all have complex four ring structure, steroids differ in the side chains attached to the carbon rings
Phospholipids & Glycolipids types of Lipids, help form clel membrane structure, see p 47
proteins = polypeptide, linear sequences of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (most abundant organic components of the human body, all contain C,H,O,N and smaller quantities of Sulfer may also be present
Protein functions (7) (p49)
Amino Acids (consist of 5 components) proteins consist of long chains of organic molecules called amino acids. Components: 1. central carbon atom. 2. Hydrogen atom. 3. Amino group (-NH2) 4. Carboxylic Acid group (-COOH). 5. a variable R (radical) group or side chain
Buffer Removes or replaces hydrogen ions in solution. Buffers maintain the PH within normal limits.
Glycoprotein glyco = carb, large protein molecules with carbs attached. Ex. Antibodies, Hormones and Mucus
Proteoglycans (carb-protein combination) large polysaccharides linked by peptide chains. Important thickening agent for tissue fluids.
Types of Protein Structure primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Primary structure Type of protein structure, an amino acid sequence
Secondary, tertiary & quaternary protein bonds are primarily held together by? hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are weak and can be denatured by disrupting H bonds with heat or PH changes
What will happen to proteins pushed outside of their normal PH and temp ranges? They will change shape and cease to function
metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions in the body
catabolism Under Metabolism, breaks down complex molecules and releases energy (ex. cellular respiration which breaks down carbs)
anabolism (Under metabolism) – synthesis of new molecules using energy (ex. to help remember – anabolic steroids)
metabolic turnover continuous removal and replacement of all organic molecules except DNA
Enzymes – Proteins<br /> – Catalysts <br /> – Reduce the energy of activation without being permanently changed or used up. – Promote chemical reactions at temperatures and PH levels compatible with life
T or F. Enzymes are needed to catalyze all chemical reactions that occur in living cells T
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